Virginia Water Treatment Examination Formula Sheet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Alkalinity Relationships

Alkalinity mg/L as CaCO3

Results of Titration Hydroxide Alkalinity as CaCO3 Carbonate Alkalinity as CaCO3 Bicarbonate Concentration as CaCO3
P = 0
0
0
T
P < 1/2 T
0
2P
T - 2P
P = 1/2 T
0
2P
0
P > 1/2 T
2P - T
2(T-P)
0
P = T
T
0
0

*Key: P - phenolphthalein alkalinity; T - total alkalinity


 

Conversion Factors
Abbreviations
1 acre = 43,560 feet cfs - cubic feet per second
1 acre foot = 326,000 gallons DO - dissolved oxygen
1 cubic foot = 7.48 gallons ft - feet
1 cubic foot = 62.4 pounds GPD - gallons per day
1 cubic foot per second = 0.646 MGD gpg - grains per gallons
1 foot = 0.305 meters GPM - gallons per minute
1 foot of water = 0.433 psi in - inches
1 gallon = 3.79 liters kW - kilowatt
1 gallon = 8.34 pounds lbs - pounds
1 grain per gallon = 17.1 mg/L MG - million gallons
1 horsepower = 0.746 k@ or 746 watts or 33,000 ft lbs/min MGD - million gallons per day
1 mile = 5,280 feet mg/L - milligrams per liter
1 million gallons per day = 694 gallons per minute mL - milliliter
1 million gallons per day = 1.55 cubic feet per second (cfs) ppb - parts per billion
1 pound = 0.454 kilograms ppm - parts per million
1 pound per square inch (psi) = 2.31 feet of water (psi) psi - pounds per square inch
1% = 10,000 mg/L Q - flow
π or pi = 3.14 SS - suspended solids
  TOC - total organic carbon
  TSS - total suspended solids
  TTHM - total trihalomethanes
  VS - volatile solids