Air Gap
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An air gap is a physical separation between a potable water source and a non-potable water source.  An air gap can prevent cross-connections.

 
Angry Customers
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Angry customers should be dealt with as calmly as possible.  Do not argue with the customer and note their concerns.  Direct the customer to the proper agency or individual to handle their concerns.



Backflow
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Backflow is any water entering a system because of venturi effect, back siphoning, cross connections, etc. that is not supposed to be in the water supply system.



Back Pressure
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Back pressure is when high pressure in a non-potable water system causes water to backflow into the potable water system.  



Bacteriology
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Bacteriology is the science that deals with the study of bacteria and their relations to medicine, industry, agriculture, and water purification.



Bedding
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Bedding is the process of preparing the area around a pipeline in order for proper installation to prevent maintenance problems.



Booster Pumps
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Booster pumps match the pressure in the system to the pressure of an addition to the system and/or are used to match an existing system to a portion of an existing system that has been changed by demand.



Cavitation
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Cavitation is caused when a pump runs faster than it can pull the flow into the suction side producing cavities of air and vapor form causing the pump to hit water and discontinuities in the water which destroys the impeller.  The noises produced by cavitation sounds like popcorn popping.  The solution is to shut the pump down or increase flow to the suction side of the pump (decrease suction head).


 
Conductivity
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Conductivity is the ability of a substance or material to carry or transmit an electrical current.



Corrosion
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Corrosion is the gradual deterioration of a substance or material by chemical or electrochemical action which often results from exposure to moisture, chemicals, or other agents.



Corrosion - Tanks
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Corrosion is another word for rust, the breakdown of metal.  Coatings and cathodic protection are used to prevent corrosion damage to tanks.  



Coupons
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A coupon is a small section of metal inserted in a water line to test for corrosion or scaling rate of a water system.


 
Cross-Connections
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Cross-connections are connections which join or link a potable water source with a source of questionable or unsafe water.  The connections allow the unsafe water to mix with the potable water and can be a serious health hazard.  Cross-connections should be prevented wherever possible and eliminated when found.


 
Cross-Connections - Back-Siphonage
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Back-siphonage is a type of cross-connection which occurs when contaminated water from a private plumbing system is pulled back into the potable water source.  


 
Cross-Connections - Control Methods
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The two accepted methods of cross-connection control are isolation and containment.


 
Cross-Connections - Control Program
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Every water system must have a program to control cross-connections.


 
Cross-Connections - Direct
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Direct cross-connections occur when water from a high pressure source forces its way directly into the public supply mains. 


Density
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Density is the mass of an object divided by the volume.



Deposition or Corrosion in Accordance with pH and Hardness
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Deposition or corrosion in accordance with pH and hardness- Pipes in a water system may either corrode or develop a build up of scale; both situations to the extreme causes problems.  Hardness refers to a characteristic of water primarily caused by calcium and magnesium salts.  Corrosion is a chemical destruction of a pipe The Baylis curve shows the relationship between the pH and the alkalinity of the water and provides a tool for establishing chemical feed rates in order to avoid deposition and corrosion.



Diagram of the Distribution System
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The distribution system includes a storage reservoir, mains, fire hydrants, booster stations, service lines, and meters.



Disinfection - New Mains
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New mains are disinfected using liquid chlorine or HTH tablets.



Double Check Valve Assembly
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A double check valve assembly is a type of back-flow prevention device.



Drift
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Drift is a change in an instrument reading over a change in time.  All measuring instruments have drift and must be re-calibrated in accordance with time to a standard to provide reliable results.



Drop Test
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A drop test refers to a method of measuring the flow of a filter bed in a water treatment facility by closing the influent valve and observing the volume loss in a specified time.



Efficiency
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Efficiency is the condition of being adequate in performance with a minimum of waste or effort.



Electricity
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Electricity is the science which pertains to electric charges and currents.



Electrolysis
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Electrolysis is the passage of an electric current through an electrolyte with subsequent migration of positively and negatively charged ions to the negative and positive electrodes.



Energy
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Energy is the ability to do work.



Equivalent System
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Erosion
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Erosion is the wearing away of material by physical and chemical forces.  For example, storm water can erode farm lands and wind erodes dry soil and rock.



Extensions - Construction
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Construction of mains extensions involves making a field sketch, digging the pipe bed, cleaning and laying the pipe, disinfecting the new pipe, and checking for leaks.  


Field Sketch
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A field sketch is a map showing the location of a new main.


Fire Hydrants
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When fire hydrants are part of the distribution system, they require special installation and maintenance.



Fire Suppression
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Public water systems must be able to provide enough flow and pressure to fire fighting equipment without damage to existing systems or loss of water service.



Flow Measurements
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Flow measurements are calculated by units of volume per unit of time.



Flows
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Flows determine feed rates and treatment time.  Flows can be measured by different methods not limited to, but including the following: differential pressure, channel, weir, drop test, container/time, and ultrasonic.



Hazard - Health
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A health hazard is a condition, device, or practice in a potable water system that could endanger the health and well being of the water customer.   Cross-connections which allow the back-flow of sewage, chemicals, pesticides, or other toxic materials into a potable water system can be considered a health hazard.

Hazard - Minor
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A minor hazard causes minor damage to the physical properties of the water system. A minor hazard can also pollute the water supply in ways which are not dangerous to health but which would be a nuisance or would be aesthetically objectionable.  Back-flow of syrup or beer into the potable water system would be a minor hazard.


Hazard - System
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A system hazard can affect the financial stability of the water supplier by causing severe physical damage to the public potable water system.  A cross-connection which allowed the back-flow of crude oil or hot paraffin into the potable water system would be a system hazard.



Hydraulics
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Hydraulics is the act of operating, moving, or employing water or other liquids in motion.  The definition of hydraulics also includes the pressure created by forcing liquids through a narrow pipe or orifice.



Hysteresis
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Hysteresis is the phenomena of having two different readings as opposed to the standard or known in the same instrument when the values are measured from opposing ends on a scale.



Inertia
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Inertia is the physical property of a body at rest to remain at rest or if in motion to remain in motion along a straight line when not acted upon by an external force.  When a valve is shut off abruptly, the water tends to keep moving due to inertia and may cause shock and damage to the system.  



Infiltration
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Infiltration is any unwanted contamination source entering into water or sewer service lines or holding areas.



Introduction
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Nature is always treating water.  Along streams there are holding chambers that reduce the flow and allows for bacteriological treatment.  Ozone, which is produced during thunderstorms, serves to disinfect rainwater and soil filters ground water.  Sunlight kills bacteria and surface waters are aerated by the interface of atmosphere and water.  Nature is continually renewing this precious resource.



Iron
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Iron is a naturally occurring element found in many ground water sources.  Iron causes water to appear "red" or "muddy" and iron contents above 0.3 ppm causes complaints by customers.    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Standards limit the iron content to 0.3 ppm.


Joints
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Joints are used to attach pipes together as well as to attach pipes to other devices.



Leaks
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Leaks in water and sewer lines are a major problem for treatment facilities.



Leaks - Testing
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After constructing a new main, it should be tested for leaks.



Line Characteristics
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Line characteristics involve the material selected (copper, steel, PVC), distance (length of pipe), size (diameter of pipe), and the type and location of valves installed in the system.



Lines
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Water and sewer lines must be protected from breakage by proper bedding, which helps prevent penetration by sharp rocks and provides insulation for avoiding exposure to extreme temperatures.  Also line size must be matched according to need.



Location
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The location of water and sewer lines should be documented to allow for repair and to avoid damage by digging.  Water lines should not be located near gas or sewer lines where possible contamination could occur.



Manganese
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Manganese is a mineral often found in surface waters that causes black stains on basins, filter sand, bathroom fixtures, laundry, etc.



Manholes
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Manholes are access points to pumping stations, valve vaults, and drainage systems.



Meters
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Meters record information on flow rates throughout the plant.  Metering allows the operator to monitor changes and conditions from a single location.



Nuisance People
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Individuals who are not necessary to the task involved and hinder the operational process.



Pb
Lead (chemical symbol Pb) is a toxic metal and must be monitored for levels in air, food, water, soil, and old paint.



Pipes - Diameter
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The carrying capacity of the distribution system depends on the diameter of the pipes in the system. Factors to be considered when deciding on pipe diameter include fire prevention demand, presence of an elevated storage tank, whether the area is residential or commercial, whether there will be expansion in the area, and present population in the area.


Pipes - Material
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A variety of materials can be used to make pipes for the distribution system.  



Planning
Many factors must be considered when planning a distribution system.  These factors include type of pipe material, size of mains, sizing and placement of storage reservoirs, inclusion of fire protection, location of valves, and other factors.



Poor Water Quality
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Poor water quality is a broad term, which can refer to any number of parameters including taste, odor, color, mineral content, and toxicity.



Pressure - Definition
Pressure is force per unit area.



Pressure - In the Distribution System
Pressure must be maintained at 17 psi or greater in the distribution system.  Most of the pressure in the distribution system is the result of static pressure built up in the storage reservoir.  

 

Pressure Ratings
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Pipes, valves, etc. all have pressure ratings.  The pressure rating is the pressure at which the metal will deform and fail.  



Pumps
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A pump is an apparatus or machine for raising, driving, exhausting, or compressing fluids or gases by means of a plunger, piston, or a set of rotating vanes.  Pumps are installed in order to boost pressure in a hydraulic system.



Pumps - Installing in an Existing System
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To successfully install a pump into an existing system, the pump should be sized according to the source and the need.  Pumps are designed to be efficient at only one pressure and one flow.  Water pumps are about 60% efficient and sewer pumps are about 40% efficient.



Purpose
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A distribution system has two distinct functions.  First, the system must deliver an adequate quantity of water to the customers.  Second, the distribution system must deliver high quantities of water to fire hydrants when needed for fire protection.


Quantity
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The quantity of water which passes through the distribution system depends on the customers' demand.

Reduced Pressure Principle Back-flow Prevention Device
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A reduced pressure principle back-flow prevention device can be used to prevent cross-connections.



Reflected Energy
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Reflected energy is the phenomenon of the change in discontinuity of sound waves when energy encounters a change in density.



Regulations
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Regulations in potable water quality and non-potable wastewater effluents are established, monitored, and enforced by administrations, agencies, and laws such as the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), the Health Department, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Clean Water Act.



Repair
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Maintenance performed on existing lines and equipment.
 



Safety
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Numerous safety standards influence the design and construction of the proposed treatment facility. OSHA and local codes should be referred to.



Shock Absorption
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Damping sudden and rapid motion, as the recoil of a spring-mounted object from shock.
 



Shutoff Head
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Shutoff head occurs when the pressure in a system is higher than the pressure the pump produces.   The net result is that no more pressure can be obtained from the system and the pump is ineffective.



Stray Voltage
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Stray voltage causes noise in electrical signals and deterioration of metals.  



Suction Head
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Suction head is the  maximum vertical distance a pump can lift water, no more than 34 feet from the source to the pump.



Tanks
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Tanks are large metal containers, which hold water for storage for peak demand and to increase pressure in a system.


Tanks - Design 
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Design of water tanks involves consideration of the tank's structural stability, location, and capacity as well as other equipment required for operation.  In elevated tanks, elevation and size and shape of structural members must also be considered.  


Tanks - Elevated
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Elevated storage tanks are often used because of the water pressure produced by the elevation.



Tanks - Ground Level
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Ground level tanks have some economic advantages over elevated tanks but do not produce as much water pressure.  



Tanks - Maintenance
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Water tanks require periodical maintenance.



Tap For New Customer
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A tap (hook up) is performed on the line when additional demand occurs in a specific location.  Cross connection regulations must be considered as well as pressure and flow needs.



Taps
A tap makes a connection such that energy or water will flow in that direction.  There are two types of taps: A live tap and a dead tap.  A live tap is done with a saddle, gate valve, three nipples, a tee, and a cap with a hold to work the cutting bit through.  Note: Live taps are dangerous.

A dead tap requires only a nipple, saddle and a cutting tool.

Telemetry
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Telemetry is the ability to send information collected in a real time environment over long distances to be recorded and interpreted for current and future use.



Testing Flows and Pressure
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Flows and pressure are tested by visual observation such as container/time methods and basic hydraulic equations.



Time to Treat
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Turbulence
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Turbulence in water is caused by roughness or velocity



Valves
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Valves are devices in hydraulic systems that are used to restrict and/or allow movement of a liquid or gas.


 
Valves - Automatic
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There are many different types of valves to control flow.



Venturi
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Venturi refers to suction created by velocity.



Volume
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Volume is calculated using three dimensions; length, width, and height.  Volume units are given in cubes such as cubic feet or cubic meters.  One cubic foot is equal to 7.481 gallons.